Daily Archives: May 5, 2023

Super-Chemistry: Unveiling a New Carbon Allotrope, Hexacarbon and Four Pathways to Achieve It

Introduction: The world of chemistry is filled with countless possibilities for innovation, with scientists constantly striving to understand and manipulate atomic interactions to create new materials and properties. One new concept in this pursuit is “super-chemistry,” which aims to create materials with enhanced bonding configurations that go beyond what is found in nature. In this blog, we will focus on the potential of super-chemistry to develop a novel, superstrong carbon allotrope, explore four innovative methods to achieve this, and discuss the potential benefits of such a material.

The goal here is to use all six electrons of each carbon atom to establish bonds with neighboring atoms, with four of them forming traditional covalent bonds and the other two creating “superbonds” that involve the inner shell electrons.

Super-Chemistry and Carbon Allotropes:

Super-chemistry refers to the creation of materials with additional bonds not typically observed in naturally occurring substances. In the case of carbon, which traditionally forms four covalent bonds in a lattice, super-chemistry seeks to develop an allotrope with six bonds per atom. We will call this hypothetical carbon allotrope “Hexacarbon.” The formation of these extra bonds could lead to materials with exceptional strength, hardness, and other unique properties.

Four Pathways to Achieve Hexacarbon:

  1. Electron Beams: The initial proposal involves creating a lattice of carbon atoms with all electrons removed, leaving positively charged ions. High-energy electron beams would then temporarily replace the electrons, effectively controlling the bonding interactions between carbon atoms. As the electron beams are reduced in voltage and energy, the electrons would settle into strong chemical bonds, forming the desired Hexacarbon lattice.
  2. High Pressure and Temperature: Applying extreme pressures and temperatures to carbon could promote the formation of new bonding configurations, including the additional two bonds per carbon atom. This method would require careful control of the pressure and temperature parameters to ensure the formation of the Hexacarbon lattice structure.
  3. Chemical Doping and Surface Functionalization: Introducing foreign atoms or chemical functional groups into the carbon lattice could facilitate the formation of additional bonds. This approach would require the careful selection of dopant atoms or functional groups to achieve the desired Hexacarbon bonding configurations without compromising lattice stability.
  4. Laser-Induced Bonding: Ultrafast laser pulses can excite and manipulate atomic and molecular bonds within materials. By precisely tuning the laser parameters, it may be possible to selectively promote the formation of the additional two bonds per carbon atom, creating the Hexacarbon lattice.

The Potential Benefits and Applications of Hexacarbon:

If successful, the development of Hexacarbon through super-chemistry could result in a material with exceptional strength and hardness, far surpassing that of existing carbon allotropes like diamond or graphene. Such a material could find applications in various industries, including aerospace, electronics, and advanced manufacturing, where superior mechanical properties are highly desirable.

Furthermore, the study of Hexacarbon and other materials resulting from super-chemistry could deepen our understanding of atomic interactions, pushing the boundaries of materials science and chemistry. The potential benefits of developing such materials extend beyond their immediate applications, opening up new avenues for scientific exploration and technological advancement.

While it is challenging to predict the precise properties of the hypothetical Hexacarbon allotrope without detailed theoretical modeling and experimental validation, it is possible that it could exhibit novel and useful electrical properties.

The unique bonding configurations, with six bonds per carbon atom, could lead to different electronic structures compared to conventional carbon allotropes, such as graphite, diamond, or graphene. This altered electronic structure could potentially result in unusual electrical properties, such as:

  1. Superconductivity: It is difficult to predict if Hexacarbon would exhibit superconductivity, as the mechanisms behind superconductivity are complex and depend on factors such as lattice structure, electron interactions, and phonon coupling. However, the enhanced bonding configurations could potentially create conditions that favor superconductivity, particularly if the material were doped or subjected to specific environmental conditions.
  2. Transparency: The optical properties of Hexacarbon, including transparency, would depend on its electronic structure and how it interacts with light. If the bonding configurations result in a wide bandgap, similar to that of diamond, Hexacarbon could potentially be transparent. However, this would need to be confirmed through theoretical modeling and experimental studies.
  3. Other unusual electrical properties: The unique bonding structure of Hexacarbon could give rise to other distinctive electrical properties, such as enhanced thermoelectric performance, nonlinear optical behavior, or tunable electronic bandgaps. These properties would depend on the specific lattice structure, bonding configurations, and electronic states in the material.

It is important to note that the precise electrical properties of Hexacarbon are speculative at this point and would need to be investigated through rigorous theoretical and experimental research. If the material does indeed exhibit novel and useful electrical properties, it could open up new opportunities in various applications, such as energy generation, electronics, and optoelectronics.


Super-chemistry represents a bold and uncertain step into uncharted territory, aiming to create materials with extraordinary properties through the manipulation of atomic bonds. By exploring innovative methods like electron beams, high pressure and temperature, chemical doping, and laser-induced bonding, scientists may be able to develop the extraordinary Hexacarbon allotrope and unlock its potential. The quest for Hexacarbon and other super-chemical materials offers a fascinating glimpse into the future of materials science, promising new discoveries and applications that could revolutionize the world around us.

It might not work. But faint heart never won fair maid.

Harnessing Electron Beam-Stabilized Lithium Crystals: A Gateway to Advanced Quantum AI and New States of Matter


The world of material science sees many innovative ideas and groundbreaking discoveries. One such idea is the concept of a crystal structure with all its electrons provided by high-energy electron beams, creating a novel state of matter. This article will delve into the uniqueness of this proposed state of matter, the potential mechanisms that underpin its behavior, and the possible applications it could have in various fields of science and technology.

The Idea:

The proposed structure involves creating a lattice of lithium atoms with their electrons stripped away, leaving them as positively charged ions. High-energy electron beams, generated using carbon nanotube-based electron pipes and controlled by applying a voltage across the tubes, would provide the necessary electrons to the lattice. The electron beams would neutralize the repulsive forces between the lithium ions, holding them in position while maintaining the lattice structure. This temporary arrangement creates a fascinating new state of matter distinct from traditional crystals where electrons are bound to individual atoms or shared in covalent or ionic bonds.

Key Differences:

This electron beam-stabilized lithium crystal represents a significant departure from previously studied states of matter. Traditional crystal structures rely on fixed electron configurations, while this proposed crystal relies on the continuous interaction between high-energy electron beams and lithium nuclei. This unique configuration could lead to interesting and distinct properties not found in other materials.

Potential Applications:

Although the practical implementation of this new state of matter presents numerous scientific and technical challenges, its successful creation and control could have exciting applications and implications across various fields:

  1. Fundamental research: Studying this new state of matter could provide valuable insights into atomic bonding, electron dynamics, and condensed matter physics.
  2. Material science: Understanding the unique properties of this temporary crystal could inspire the development of new materials or applications in areas such as electronics, energy storage, or advanced manufacturing.
  3. Ultrafast processes: The high-speed electron beams and temporary nature of the structure make it a promising system for studying ultrafast processes like electron transfer, energy transfer, or chemical reactions on extremely short timescales.
  4. Controlled electron sources: Precision control of the electron beams in this system could lead to new techniques or tools for applications requiring controlled electron sources, including imaging, spectroscopy, or advanced manufacturing processes.
  5. Radiation science: The high-energy electron beams used in this system could offer opportunities for studying radiation effects on materials or biological systems, with potential applications in radiation damage mechanisms, radiation shielding, or radiation therapy.

Potential Quantum Computing Uses

Adding to the potential benefits of the electron beam-stabilized lithium crystal, it’s worth considering the possibility of entanglement between the atoms in the lattice due to electron sharing in three dimensions. As the high-energy electron beams interact with the lithium nuclei, the continuous exchange of electrons among neighboring atoms might facilitate a unique form of entanglement, which we can term a “quantum lock.”

The quantum lock could potentially help stabilize the quantum coherence of the system by creating a strong interconnected network of entangled atoms throughout the lattice. This interconnectedness might mitigate some of the decoherence effects that typically plague quantum systems, thereby maintaining the necessary coherence for quantum computing and advanced AI applications.

To fully exploit the potential of the quantum lock, additional system components or strategies might be necessary to precisely control and manipulate the entangled states within the lattice. By optimizing these interactions, the electron beam-stabilized lithium crystal could provide a powerful and stable platform for quantum information processing, paving the way for groundbreaking advancements in quantum AI and other cutting-edge technologies.

Although the crystal structure itself may not on its own directly function as a quantum computer, it could potentially be combined with other quantum computing technologies or systems to create a more robust and advanced computational platform.

The unique properties of this new state of matter might offer other advantages for quantum computing, such as high-speed interactions between the electrons and the lattice, which could potentially be harnessed for ultrafast information processing. Additionally, the temporary nature of the crystal structure might allow for flexible and dynamic configurations that could be tailored for specific quantum computing tasks.

If the electron beam-stabilized lithium crystal could be successfully integrated into a quantum computing system and used as a platform for powerful quantum AI, it could indeed facilitate the development of advanced AI systems, such as a hive AI mind. A hive AI, consisting of multiple interconnected AI entities or agents, could potentially take advantage of the crystal’s unique properties and its potential for ultrafast information processing.

The high computational power of such a system could enable the hive AI to perform complex tasks and make rapid decisions based on vast amounts of data. In this context, the electron beam-stabilized lithium crystal could provide a suitable environment for the AI entities to interact, exchange information, and collaboratively solve problems. The hive AI might be able to perform most of its thinking and processing internally, with relatively small amounts of input and output data, maximizing the system’s efficiency.

In summary, while there are still numerous scientific and technical challenges to be addressed, the concept of using the electron beam-stabilized lithium crystal as part of a quantum computing system or as a platform for powerful quantum AI holds promise. If successfully developed and integrated, it could open new possibilities for advanced AI systems, such as hive AI minds, capable of tackling complex problems and making rapid, intelligent decisions. Further research and development will be crucial in determining the feasibility of this idea and realizing its full potential.


The idea of an electron beam-stabilized lithium crystal presents a novel and intriguing concept in the realm of material science. While several challenges must be addressed to realize its full potential, the successful implementation of this new state of matter could open the door to groundbreaking discoveries and applications across various scientific disciplines. As we continue to explore the frontiers of science, it’s exciting to consider the possibilities that such innovative ideas may hold for the future.

The Inverse Capacitor: A Novel Energy Storage System with Potential Applications in Rocket Propulsion

Title: The Inverse Capacitor: A Novel Energy Storage System with Potential Applications in Rocket Propulsion


The search for new energy storage systems and propulsion technologies is an ongoing quest in the world of science and engineering. One innovative concept that has recently gained attention is the “inverse capacitor,” a unique energy storage system that could potentially be used as a rocket fuel alternative. In this blog post, we will explore the fundamentals of the inverse capacitor, its potential applications in rocket propulsion, and the challenges that must be overcome to realize its full potential.

The Inverse Capacitor Concept

The inverse capacitor is an energy storage system that, at first glance, resembles a conventional capacitor. However, instead of using oppositely charged plates to store energy, the inverse capacitor features plates with the same charge, which are held apart by the repulsive forces between them. To balance the overall charge and prevent dangerous electric fields from building up, neighboring inverse capacitors have opposite charges. This design eliminates the high field gradient between the plates, which could cause electrical breakdown in conventional capacitors.

The energy storage in the inverse capacitor comes primarily from the mechanical potential energy stored in the repulsive forces between the same-charge plates. By using a strong material such as graphene, which can withstand high mechanical forces, the inverse capacitor could potentially store significant amounts of energy in a compact form.

Potential Applications in Rocket Propulsion

One of the most intriguing potential applications of the inverse capacitor is its use as a rocket fuel alternative. In this scenario, a stack of graphene layers, each charged up to the point of almost causing mechanical failure, would act as a high-density energy storage system. When the encapsulation holding the stack together is ruptured, the repulsive forces between the layers would cause them to be ejected at high speeds, producing thrust through ablation.

The high energy density of the inverse capacitor could potentially enable single-stage rockets capable of reaching Mars from Earth’s surface without the need for multiple stages. This could revolutionize space travel by reducing the complexity and cost of rocket launches.

Energy Density: A Game Changer in Energy Storage and Propulsion

One of the key advantages of the inverse capacitor concept is its remarkable energy density. With an estimated potential energy density of 170 MJ/L, (about 5x that of petrol) the inverse capacitor has the potential to outperform conventional rocket fuels and energy storage systems. To put this into perspective, hydrogen fuel, which is considered one of the most energy-dense fuels available today, has an energy density of around 142 MJ/kg or approximately 8-10 MJ/L, depending on the storage method. This significant increase in energy density could enable more efficient and powerful propulsion systems, as well as compact and high-capacity energy storage solutions for various applications.

No Rocket Motor Required: Simplifying Propulsion Systems

Another intriguing aspect of the inverse capacitor concept is that it does not require a traditional rocket motor. Instead, the propulsion is generated by the ablation of the graphene layers, which are ejected at high speeds due to the repulsive forces between the same-charge plates. This eliminates the need for complex and heavy rocket engines, as well as the intricate plumbing and control systems typically associated with traditional rocket propulsion. By simplifying the propulsion system, the inverse capacitor has the potential to reduce the overall mass and complexity of a rocket, leading to increased payload capacity and reduced launch costs.

Cryogenics-Free and Electrically Powered: A Greener and Safer Alternative

Conventional rocket fuels often rely on cryogenic storage and handling, which can be complex, costly, and hazardous. In contrast, the inverse capacitor is an entirely electrical energy storage system, which eliminates the need for cryogenic storage and handling. This not only simplifies the logistics and infrastructure required for fuel storage and transportation but also reduces the environmental impact and safety risks associated with cryogenic fuels.

Additionally, the electrical nature of the inverse capacitor system offers several advantages over traditional chemical rocket fuels. Since the energy storage and release are governed by electrical processes, the system can be more easily controlled and monitored. This could lead to more precise control over the propulsion system, resulting in improved efficiency and performance. Furthermore, the absence of combustion processes in the inverse capacitor propulsion system eliminates the production of harmful emissions and reduces the risk of explosions or other catastrophic failures.

In conclusion, the inverse capacitor concept presents a unique and promising alternative to traditional rocket propulsion and energy storage systems. Its high energy density, simplified propulsion mechanism, and electrically powered operation offer several advantages over conventional technologies, making it an attractive option for future research and development. While challenges remain in understanding the material properties and energy release mechanisms of the inverse capacitor, its potential to revolutionize space travel and energy storage is undeniable.

Challenges and Future Research

While the inverse capacitor concept holds great promise, there are several challenges that must be addressed before it can be fully realized:

  1. Material properties: The properties of graphene, such as mechanical strength and electrical conductivity, need to be thoroughly studied to determine the maximum energy storage capacity and the optimal design parameters for the inverse capacitor.
  2. Energy release mechanisms: The practicality and efficiency of using the inverse capacitor’s stored energy for propulsion must be investigated, including the mechanisms for releasing the energy and converting it into thrust.
  3. Safety concerns: The safety aspects of using a high-density energy storage system like the inverse capacitor in rocket propulsion must be carefully considered, including potential risks associated with electrical breakdown and mechanical failure.


The inverse capacitor is an innovative energy storage concept with the potential to revolutionize rocket propulsion and energy storage systems. By harnessing the mechanical potential energy stored in repulsive forces between same-charge plates, the inverse capacitor could offer significant advantages in terms of energy density and single-stage rocket performance. Further research and development are required to determine the feasibility and practicality of this novel concept, but the potential benefits are undoubtedly worth exploring.

3-Terminal Digital Neurons for AI Applications on Everyday Devices

This is the digital equivalent of my last blog. It considered analog neurons because I wanted to consider designing for potential consciousness. This one just looks at digital neurons, using the potential energy saving advantages.

I discussed this idea with GPT4 and then got it to write this blog. It’s good enough to get the idea across. I don’t have the means to simulate the performance of 3-terminal nets compared to conventional approached. I am hoping that it could be comparable to migrating towards RISC a few decades ago and thus offer advantage for certain types of problem. As this blog shows, it might offer promise, but it might not be very significant.

As artificial intelligence (AI) continues to gain momentum, researchers and developers are continually exploring new methods to improve the performance, energy efficiency, and adaptability of AI applications on everyday devices such as laptops, PCs, and mobile phones. One promising approach involves the use of 3-terminal digital neurons in neural networks, which could lead to a paradigm shift in the AI landscape, similar to the impact of Reduced Instruction Set Computing (RISC) in the computing field. In this blog, we delve into the concept of 3-terminal digital neurons, discuss their potential advantages, and explore their applicability in AI applications on everyday devices.

The Concept: 3-Terminal Digital Neurons

Traditional neural networks typically use neurons with multiple input connections and a single output connection. However, the concept of 3-terminal digital neurons offers a departure from this traditional design. Each 3-terminal neuron has three connections that can serve as input or output at any given time, allowing for dynamic reconfiguration during operation. The use of 3-terminal neurons in neural networks presents several potential benefits, including simplicity, adaptability, and energy efficiency.

Advantages of 3-Terminal Digital Neurons

  1. Reduced complexity: Neural networks with 3-terminal neurons can be designed with fewer connections, which simplifies the overall architecture. This reduced complexity can lead to faster development times and easier implementation in AI applications on laptops, PCs, and mobile phones.
  2. Energy efficiency: As 3-terminal neurons require fewer connections, they may consume less energy during computation. This can be especially beneficial for AI applications running on mobile devices, where battery life is a critical concern.
  3. Adaptability and flexibility: The dynamic nature of the connections in a 3-terminal neuron network enables greater adaptability and flexibility. This can lead to improved learning and adaptation capabilities in AI applications, resulting in better performance on a wide range of tasks.

Interworking with GPUs and CPUs

Simulating neural networks using combinations of 3-terminal and higher-level neurons could be an effective way to explore the potential of this approach. By investigating the compatibility and performance of these networks with existing GPU and CPU architectures, we can determine whether the overall computing power available on mobile, laptop, or PC devices would be better utilized by simulating 3-terminal neuron nets or by employing conventional approaches.

Moreover, if 3-terminal digital neurons do confer an advantage, it is worth considering whether relatively small investments in R&D could lead to the redesign of processor architectures to better suit this novel approach. This could result in more efficient, flexible, and adaptable AI applications on everyday devices.

Challenges and Future Directions

While 3-terminal digital neurons offer several potential advantages, there are also challenges to overcome in order to fully realize their potential in AI applications:

  1. Network complexity: A neural network with 3-terminal neurons may require more neurons or layers to achieve the same level of complexity as a network with neurons having a higher number of inputs. This may result in increased computational complexity and longer training times.
  2. Training algorithms: Developing appropriate training algorithms specifically for 3-terminal neuron networks is essential for optimizing their performance in AI applications.
  3. Scalability: Ensuring that 3-terminal digital neuron networks can scale effectively to handle large and complex AI tasks is crucial for their successful implementation on laptops, PCs, and mobile phones.


The use of 3-terminal digital neurons in neural networks offers an intriguing and potentially advantageous approach to improving AI applications on everyday devices. Embracing the potential paradigm shift, as was the case with RISC, and learning from the interworking with existing hardware architectures can lead to the development of more powerful, efficient, and adaptable AI applications.

By addressing the challenges and building upon the inherent benefits of 3-terminal neurons, developers can create AI applications that are better suited for laptops, PCs, and mobile phones. The potential of this approach should not be underestimated, as it could pave the way for significant advancements in the field of AI.

Future Research and Collaboration:

To push the boundaries of AI using 3-terminal digital neurons, collaboration between researchers, developers, and industry professionals is essential. Several research directions that can be pursued to further advance this approach include:

  1. Benchmarking and evaluation: Rigorous benchmarking and evaluation of 3-terminal digital neuron networks against traditional neural network architectures can help identify the strengths, weaknesses, and specific use cases where this approach excels.
  2. Hardware optimization: The development of specialized hardware tailored for 3-terminal digital neuron networks can enhance the efficiency and performance of AI applications on everyday devices.
  3. Integration with existing AI techniques: Investigating the potential for combining 3-terminal digital neuron networks with existing AI techniques, such as deep learning, reinforcement learning, and transfer learning, could lead to the development of hybrid systems that leverage the strengths of both approaches.
  4. Open-source development: Encouraging open-source development and sharing of resources, such as algorithms, software, and hardware designs, can accelerate the progress and adoption of 3-terminal digital neuron networks in the AI community.

By fostering collaboration and encouraging the exploration of this novel approach to neural networks, we can unlock the potential of 3-terminal digital neurons and drive the development of AI applications that are better suited for everyday devices. This, in turn, will enhance user experiences and enable new possibilities for AI-powered solutions on laptops, PCs, and mobile phones.

Deeper exploration

To determine the advantages or disadvantages of using 3-terminal neurons for a given app running on mobile devices in terms of speed and power consumption, we would need to consider several factors. While it’s difficult to provide a definitive answer without specific information about the app, its requirements, and the architecture of the neural network, we can discuss some general factors that could influence the performance and efficiency.

  1. Network complexity: Using 3-terminal neurons may result in an increased number of neurons and layers to achieve the same level of complexity as a network with neurons having a higher number of inputs. This may result in increased computational complexity, which could potentially impact the speed and power consumption.
  2. Connection density: A network with 3-terminal neurons would have fewer connections than a traditional neural network with a higher number of inputs. Fewer connections could lead to reduced power consumption, as there is less data to transmit and process. However, the impact on speed is more difficult to predict, as it depends on the efficiency of the underlying architecture and the specific app’s requirements.
  3. Hardware optimization: Neural networks with 3-terminal neurons might not be as well-optimized for existing hardware, such as CPUs and GPUs, as traditional neural network architectures. This could result in less efficient utilization of hardware resources, potentially affecting both speed and power consumption. However, if hardware is developed specifically for 3-terminal neurons, this factor could change.
  4. Parallelism: One of the advantages of traditional neural networks is their ability to exploit parallelism, which can lead to improved performance on parallel processing hardware like GPUs. With 3-terminal neurons, the degree of parallelism could be different, and it’s difficult to predict how this would impact the speed without knowing the specifics of the network architecture and the app.
  5. Training and inference: The performance of 3-terminal neuron networks during the training phase might differ from that during inference. Depending on the app’s requirements, one of these phases might be more critical in terms of speed and power consumption. The impact of using 3-terminal neurons on training and inference should be considered separately.

In summary, it is challenging to provide a definitive answer on whether there would be an advantage or disadvantage in speed or power consumption for a given app by migrating to a 3-terminal approach without more information. However, considering the factors mentioned above can help guide the analysis and decision-making process. Ultimately, a thorough evaluation and benchmarking of 3-terminal neuron networks against traditional neural network architectures for specific apps would be necessary to determine their relative performance and efficiency.

May not be much in it, but still worth a shot

There is no obvious large difference that would inherently shift R&D value towards or away from the 3-terminal approach without conducting further research and experimentation. The potential advantages and disadvantages of using 3-terminal neurons in neural networks are dependent on various factors, such as network complexity, connection density, hardware optimization, parallelism, and the specific requirements of the target application.

Given the novelty of the 3-terminal approach, it’s essential to perform thorough evaluations and benchmarking against traditional neural network architectures to better understand its strengths, weaknesses, and potential use cases. The R&D value of the 3-terminal approach will become clearer as more research is conducted, and the understanding of its performance characteristics and compatibility with existing hardware and algorithms improves.

It’s worth noting that exploring novel approaches, like the 3-terminal neuron networks, can lead to innovative breakthroughs and advancements in the field of AI. As a result, investing in R&D for 3-terminal neurons could potentially reveal new opportunities and applications that may not be apparent at the outset. However, the decision to invest in R&D for the 3-terminal approach should be carefully weighed against other competing research directions, available resources, and the potential risks and rewards associated with the pursuit of this novel neural network architecture.