Active Skin part 2: initial applications

When I had the active skin idea, it was obvious that there would be a lot of applications so I dragged the others from the office into a brainstorm to determine the scope of this concept. These are the original ideas from that 2001 brainstorm and the following days as I wrote them up, so don’t expect this to be an updated 2014 list, I might do that another time. Some of these have been developed at least in part by other companies in the years since, and many more are becoming more obvious as applications now that the technology foundations are catching up. I have a couple more parts of this to publish, with some more ideas. I’ve loosely listed them here in sections according to layer, but some of the devices may function at two or more different layers. I won’t repeat them, so it should be assumed that any of these could be appropriate to more than one layer. You’ll notice we didn’t bother with the wearables layer since even in 2001 wearable computing was already a well-established field in IT labs, with lots of ideas already. Slide2 Smart tattoos layer This layer is produced by deep printing well into the skin, possibly using similar means to that for tattooing. Some devices could be implanted by means of water or air pressure injection Slide10 Slide11 Slide6

  1. Display capability leading to static or multimedia display instead of static ink
  2. Use for multimedia body adornment, context dependent tattoos, tribalism
  3. monitor body chemicals for clues to emotional, hormonal or health state
  4. Measurement of blood composition to assist in drug dosing
  5. monitor nerve signals
  6. tattoos that show body’s medical state or other parameters
  7. health monitor displays, e.g.  blood insulin level, warning displays, instructions and recommendations on what actions to take
  8. show emotional state, emoticons shown according to biochemical or electrical cues
  9. may convert information on body’s state into other stimuli, such as heat or vibration
  10. may do same from external stimuli
  11. devices in different people could be linked in this way, forming emotilinks. Groups of people could be linked. People belonging to several such groups might have different signalling or position for each group.
  12. Identification, non-erasable, much less invasive than having an implant for the same purpose so would not have the same public objection. This could be electronic, or as simple as ultraviolet ink in a machine readable form such as barcode, snowflake etc
  13. Power supply for external devices using body’s energy supply, e.g. ATP
  14. Metallic ear implants on ear drum as hearing aid – electrostatic or magnetically driven
  15. Electronic signet ring, electronics that will only function when held by the rightful user
  16. Electronic signature devices

Mid-term layer Slide8 Slide9 Slide7Slide5 These components could be imprinted by printing onto the skin surface. Some could be implemented by adsorption from transfers, others by mechanical injection.

  1. Access technology – temporary access to buildings or theme parks. Rather than a simple stamp, people could have a smarter ID device printed into their skin
  2. The device could monitor where the wearer goes and for how long
  3. It could interact with monitoring equipment in buildings or equipment
  4. The device might include the use of invisible active inks on smart membrane
  5. Components could be made soluble to wash off easily, or more permanent
  6. Components could be photodegradable
  7. Could use ultraviolet inks that may be read by either external devices or other components
  8. Like smart tattoo ID systems, they could use snowflakes, colour snowflakes, barcodes or ‘digital paper’, to give a ‘digital skin’ functionality
  9. This could interact with ‘digital air’ devices
  10. Could be used to co-ordinate external device positioning accurately for medical reasons, e.g. acupuncture, TENS etc.
  11. Ultra-smart finger prints, wide range of functions based on interaction with computers and external devices, other smart skin systems, or digital paper
  12. Outputs DNA or DNA code to external reader for ID or medical reasons
  13. Combine with smart tags to achieve complex management and control systems, e.g. in package handling, product assembly
  14. SOS talismans, full health record built into body, including blood groups, tissue groups etc
  15. Degradable radiation monitors that can be positioned at key body points for more accurate dose measurement
  16. Could signal between such devices to a central display via the skin
  17. Devices might communicate using ad-hoc networks, could be used as a distributed antenna for external communication
  18. Thermometers & alarms. Use to measure heat for alarms for old people with degraded senses
  19. Directly interact with smart showers to prevent scalding
  20. Could monitor peoples behaviour for behaviour based alarms, e.g. fall alarms
  21. Overlay synthetic nervous system, use for medical prostheses, bionics or external interfacing
  22. Synthesised senses, making us sensitive to stimuli outside our biological capability
  23. Smart teeth, checks food for presence of bacteria or toxins
  24. Monitor breath for bad odours or illness
  25. Diabetic supervision, monitor ketones
  26. Monitor diet and link to smart devices in the home or hospital to police diet
  27. Modify taste by directly stimulating nerves in the tongue? Probably not feasible
  28. Calorie counting
  29. Smile enhancement, using light emission or fluorescence
  30. Smile training, e.g. tactile feedback on mouth position after operation
  31. Operation scar monitoring, patch across wound could monitor structural integrity,
  32. infection monitor based on detecting presence of harmful bacteria, or characteristics of surrounding skin affected by infection
  33. semi-permanent nail varnish with variable colour
  34. context sensitive nail varnish
  35. multimedia nail varnish
  36. Baby tagging for security purposes & wide range of medical applications such as breathing monitoring, temperature, movement etc
  37. Operation tagging to prevent mistakes, direct interaction with electronic equipment in theatre
  38. ITU applications
  39. Active alarms, integrated into external devices, directly initiate action
  40. Position based sensors and alarms
  41. Personality badge

Transfer layer This layer could use printing techniques straight onto the skin surface, or use transfers. A thin transfer membrane may stay in place for the duration of the required functionality, but could be removed relatively easily if necessary. It is envisaged that this membrane would be a thin polymer that acts as a carrier for the components as well as potentially shielding them from direct contact with the body or from the outside world. It could last for up to several days.

  1. Tactile interfaces – vibration membranes that convey texture or simple vibration
  2. Tactile stimuli as a means for alarms, coupled with heat, cold, or radiation sensors
  3. Text to Braille translation without need for external devices, using actuators in fingertip pads
  4. Use for navigation based on external magnetic field measurement, GPS or other positioning systems, translated into sensory stimuli
  5. Measurement and possible recording of force
  6. use to police child abuse, or other handling in the workplace as safety precautions. Could link to alarms
  7. motion detection, using kinetic or magnetic detection for use in sports or medical systems
  8. actuators built into transfers could give force feedback.
  9. Could directly link to nerve stimulation via lower layers to accomplish full neural feedback
  10. combine sensor and actuators to directly control avatars in cyberspace and for computer interfacing feedback
  11. interfaces for games
  12. short duration software licenses for evaluation purposes, needs fragile transfer so limits use to single user for lifetime of transfer
  13. sensors on eyes allow eye tracking
  14. direct retinal display, active contact lens replacement
  15. UV phosphors allow ultraviolet vision
  16. Actuators or tensioning devices could control wrinkles
  17. could assist in training for sports
  18. training for typing, playing music, music composition, virtual instruments
  19. keypad-free dialling
  20. air typing, drawing, sculpting
  21. type on arm using finger and arm patches
  22. finger snap control
  23. active sign languages
  24. ‘palm pilot’, computer on hand
  25. digital computer, count on fingers
  26. generic 3D interface
  27. use with transfer phone
  28. education use to explore surfaces of virtual objects in virtual environments
  29. use for teletravel navigation, or use in dangerous environments for controlling robotics
  30. direct nervous system links
  31. could assist in body language in conjunction with emotion sensors for socially disadvantaged people
  32. could act as signalling device in place of phone ring or audible alarms (actuator is not necessarily piezoelectric vibrator)
  33. doorbell on skin, personal doorbell, only alerts person of relevance
  34. active sunscreen using electrical stimuli to change sun-block cream to block UV when UV dose is reached
  35. could electrically alter heat radiation properties to enhance heating or cooling of body
  36. membranes with smart holes allow just the right amount of drug delivery in conjunction with smart tattoos. May use lower layers to accurately position and record dosing data
  37. Could use heat, cold, vibration as signals between people
  38. Electronic muscles – use polymer gel or memory metal or contracting wires
  39. Ultrasonic communication between devices and outside world
  40. Teledildonic applications
  41. Oscillating magnetic patches for medical reasons
  42. Applies voltage across wound to assist healing
  43. Smart Nicotine or antibiotic patches
  44. Painkilling patches using pain measurement (nerve activity) and directly controlling using electric stimuli, or administering drugs
  45. Placebo device patches
  46. Multimedia cosmetics
  47. Smart cosmetics, with actuators, smart tattoos that are removable
  48. Self organising cosmetic circuits, sensor, smart chemicals and actuator matrices
  49. Continuous electrolysis as hair growth limiter
  50. Electro-acupuncture with accurate positioning
  51. Control of itching to allow more rapid recovery
  52. Baby-care anti-scratch patches
  53. Printed aerials on body for device communication
  54. Detect, record, process and transmit nerve signals
  55. EEG use
  56. Thought control of devices
  57. Invisible scalp sensors for thought collection
  58. Emotion badge
  59. Truth badge, using body cues to convey whether lying or not. Could be unknown to wearer, transmitting by radio or ultrasound or in UV
  60. Context sensitive perfumes, emotionally sensitive perfumes
  61. Inverse heat sensitive perfumes, prevent too much being given off when warm
  62. Smell sensitive deodorant, or temperature dependent
  63. Context sensitive makeup, that behaves differently with different people at different situations or times
  64. Colour sensitive sun-block, protects more on fairer skin
  65. Active Bindies (dots on Indian women foreheads)
  66. Active jewellery
  67. Power generation for wearable electrical devices, using body heat, solar power, kinetics or skin contraction
  68. Microphones
  69. Frequency translation to allow hearing out of normal audible spectrum
  70. Bugs – unspecified functions in devices
  71. Mosquito killers, zapping insects with charge, or deterring with ultrasound or electrical signals
  72. Automatic antiseptic injections
  73. Use on animals for medical and pest control purposes
  74. Pet signalling and training
  75. Pet homing
  76. Pet ID systems
  77. Jam nerves
  78. Muscle toning
  79. Image capture, compound eyes, raster scan with micro-mirror and transverse lens
  80. Phones, watches, diaries etc
  81. Chameleon, cuttlefish pattern novelties
  82. Orifice monitoring
  83. Transfer body suit, self-organising polymer coating. Use for sports etc.
  84. Position-based devices
  85. Morse code devices for children’s communications
  86. Movement to voice translation – guidance for blind people or use for everyday navigation, sports feedback
  87. Strain alarms
  88. Use with smart drugs
  89. Smell as ring tone
  90. Smell as alarm
  91. Smell for emotion conveyance
  92. Snap fingers to switch lights on
  93. Tactile interfaces
  94. Emotional audio-video capture
  95. record on body condition
  96. wires on skin as addition to MIT bodynet
  97. tension control devices to assist wound healing
  98. avatar mimicry, electronically control ones appearance
  99. electronic paint-by numbers

100.means to charge up other devices by linking to external electrical device or by induction 101.devices that can read ultraviolet ink on sub layer 102.finger mouse, using fingertip sensors instead of mouse, can be used in 3D with appropriate technology base 103.Use of combinations of patches to monitor relative movements of body parts for use in training and medical treatments. Could communicate using infrared, radio or ultrasound 104.Use of an all-over skin that acts as a protective film so that each device doesn’t have to be dermatologically tested. Unlikely to be full body but could cover some key areas. E.g. some people are allergic to Elastoplast, so could have their more vulnerable areas covered. 105.Strain gauges on stomach warning of overeating 106.Strain gauge based posture alarms on the neck, back and shoulders etc 107.Breathalysers in smart teeth alert drivers to being over the limit and interact directly with car immobilisers 108.Pedometers and weight sensors built into feet to monitor exercise etc 109.Battlefield management systems using above systems with remote management Fully Removable layer

  1. Smart elastoplasts
  2. Smart contact lenses with cameras and video
  3. Smart suits with sensors and actuators for sports and work
  4. Almost all conventional personal electronic devices
  5. Web server
  6. Web sites

2 responses to “Active Skin part 2: initial applications

  1. Pingback: Futureseek Daily Link Review; 10 January 2014 | Futureseek Link Digest

  2. Pingback: Active Skin part 3 – key fields and inventions | The more accurate guide to the future

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